Anonymous: Pujya Guru ji, Sadar Pranaam, Guru ji maharaj can you explain in brief the main topic of all six darshans, 11 upnishads with the name of our rishis who wrote them so that it helps all your desciples including me to know it better. Charan sparsh from all of us, we sincerely want to have your darshan as early as possible. Any commands from you for giving new direction to my line. I sincerely want to get back to work in the field of education. By your blessings the divine pension is more than enough for me.
Swami Ram Swarup: Dear daughter, my blessings to you all for a long, happy life. I hope that you are continuing your daily havan, name jaap of God and practice of yoga philosophy which will only help you to realise truth and to spread it which is actually act of kindness on this earth. Otherwise, people are passing their lives in sorrows, tensions, sickness, problems duly indulged in illusion. My heartiest love to son Advaita for his success in life and I look forward to see you all again. Again, my blessings to you, my daughter.
1. Eeshavasyopnishad – The first word of first shloka of Upnishad is Eeshavasyam and based on it the name of the Upnishad is called Eeshavasyopnishad.
It comprises of almost entire last 40th chapter of Yajurveda. The Upnishad inspires to do hard working continuously and tells that God is everywhere and is watching us every time, so we must be afraid of God and always do pious deeds according to Vedas. Otherwise, God punishes the sinners/wrong doers. So, everybody must do the pious deeds and utilize the worldly matters, being duly detached from them. It gives knowledge of “Vidya” and “avidya” i.e., ‘Wisdom’ and ‘Illusion’, Individualism and Collectivism i.e.., Vyaktiwad and spashtiwad respectively and destruction.
2. Kenopnishad – Writer is Ken Rishi. It gives knowledge of senses, perceptions and mind. Upnishad warns an individual to strive to know the God in his present life otherwise he shall be admonished to self-destruction. Wise persons attain salvation. It reveals story of yaksha and says the base of spiritualism as Tap (austerity), Dam (control over senses etc.) and Karma (pious deeds).
3. Kathopnishad – Writer is Kath Rishi. There is discussion between Vajashravas (father) and Nachiketa (son) regarding donation of cows. The Upnishad says about waiting of Nachiketa for three nights to get Deeksha from acharya. Acharya lures Nachiketa and tries to indulge him in illusion but Nachiketa does not fall for the same. Acharya is pleased and asks him to get three blessings from him. Concept of shrey (pious path) and prey (impious path).
God resides in the heart. Knowledge of Om, Brahma, death etc., is also given. Soul is driver of the body. Knowledge of soul, vasu, hota and atithi is also revealed.
Human body is like an inverted tree, knowledge of one hundred one arteries and veins.
4. Prashnopnishad – In this Upnishad:-
(i)Kabandi and Katyayan Rishi put forth questions to Piplad Rishi that from whom the creation is originated.
(ii) Bhargava and Vaidarbhi Rishi ask Piplad Rishi that who holds the creation.
(iii) Kaushlayya and Aashwalayan put questions to Piplad Rishi about the origin of prann.
(iv) Sauryayanni and Gargaya ask Piplad Rishi that who takes sleep and who does not sleep.
(v) Shaivya and Satyakaam ask Piplad Rishi that what is the importance of OMKAR.
(vi) Sukesha and Bahrdwaj ask Piplad Rishi as to where the Purush (person) having 16 kala, lives.
5. Mundakopnishad – It contains:-
(i) Angira Rishi preaches the Brahma Vidya (spiritualism) to Shaunak Rishi.
(ii) Description of Viraat Purush.
(iii) Description of two birds, one who is witness and other bears the result of karmas and the God is never realized based on the mere long preaches and stories etc.
6. Mandookopnishad – It contains description of stages of Jagrat (awakened). Swapan (dreaming) and sushupti( sound sleep).
7. Taiteeryopnishad –
(i) Pronunciation and description of Truth.
(ii) About creation and description of divine pleasure.
(iii) Preach to Bhrigu by Varunn Rishi.
(iv) Importance of food (Anna)
8. Aiitaryopnishad – tells about creation and description of pregnancy.
9. Chchandogyopnishad –
(i) Talks about worship of OMKAR/Udgeet.
(ii) About Samveda gayan,Yajyen.
(iii) Adhyatmik Vikas (spiritual upliftment)
(iv) Importance of Gayatri mantra.
(v) God is realized in human body.
(vi) Discussion between prann and organs.
(vii) Preach to Shwetketu by his father about Truth i.e., Truth is everlasting and Preach about “ Tatvam Asi”
(viii) Preach to Narad by Sanat Kumar Rishi.
(ix) Description of the eternal Truth about the unity of worldly matters and spiritualism.
(x) The door by which soul goes out of body.
(xi) Dialogue between Gargi and Yagvalkaya Rishi
10. Brihadaranyakopnishad – It contains knowledge about:-
(i) Death and creation
(ii) Relating to Prann in Dev and asur
(iv) The meaning of Aham Brahma Asmi.
(v) The origin of Dharma.
11. Shwetashwataropnishad – It contains discussion on-
(i) The reason for creation i.e., by whom the universe was created.
(ii) God gives birth to soul based on his deeds.
(iii) Soul is bound in the ties of karma.
(iv) Knowledge of God, Soul and prakriti.
(v) God is within human-beings like oil is present in seeds of Til.
(vi) Meditation, Praise and Prayer.
(vii) Dhyan Yoga and Prannayam.
(viii) Yog sadhna.
(ix) To know the God who creates, nurses and destroys.
(x) God is the Lord of Soul and Prakriti.
(xii) Definition of Knowledge (Spiritualism) and illusion.
(xiii) He is called Brahma who knows Vedas.
(xiv) Form of soul.
(xv) The reason of rebirth.
(xvi) The reason of creation is not natural or due to time. Because creation relates to Almighty God.
(xvii) Those who have equal faith- in God as well as in Guru, they realise God.
There are six shastras which are also called “darshans”. ‘Darshan’ means “to see the reality of God, souls, Prakriti/creation etc.” Following are shastras-
1. NYAYA SHASTRA – It has five chapters written by Maharishi Gautam. Here, the meaning of Nyaya is by which we reach at a definite principle. The following main subjects are contained in this shastra-
i) To get solution of ordinary problems,
ii) To unveil the secrets of the universe,
iii) Soul and salvation,
iv) God and His knowledge
The shastra firmly/strongly tells to believe in the existence of God on which it states-
a) All the matters of universe are compound in nature. So, there must be an alive power who unites the basic elements to create the compound matters of universe.
b). There must be an alive power who awards the result of deeds to living-beings.
c). Vedas are the storehouse of divine knowledge. Vedas are “Apaurushayaha” i.e., not written by any human-being but are God-made.
d). To realise the God, mann, buddhi, chit, ahanakar (inner organ) must be the purest and the outer means to realise God will be of no use.
2. VAISHESHIK SHASTRA – written by Kannad Rishi. Special subtlest/minutest matters being the subject of the shastra, it has been named as Vaisheshik shastra.
The Shastra mainly tells about the following six matters- Dravya (matter), gunn (qualities), Karma (deeds), Saamanya (ordinary), Vishesh (special/distinctive), Samvaye (i.e., inseparable relation in a matter. For example- Inseparable relation between fragrance and flower).
The main principles of this shastra are as under-
a) Parmannuwad- The atomic theory i.e., the creation is based on Parmannu (atoms etc.) i.e., the creation is based on coming together of innumerable atoms.
b) Anekatmawad- There are several souls which are provided with different kinds of bodies based on the result of their deeds.
c) There must be some reason of creation i.e., without reason no result is obtained. For example- The reason of the baby is his parents.
d) The atomic theory is eternal- The atoms (in the case of creation) is the minutest one and being indivisible is indestructible.
Note- (Here the atom means Rajo gunn, Tammo gunn and sato Gunn, which are eternal.)
e) Srishtiwad- The theory of creation of universe.
“Without cause no result”
So, the cause of creation is Almighty God.
f) Mokshawad – The theory of salvation- the main motto of the soul is to attain salvation by breaking the cycle of death and birth.
3. SANKHYA DARSHAN– Writer is Kapil Muni.
Sankhya Darshan mainly tells about the purpose of Prakriti and souls. Prakriti means Satva, Rajas and Tamo qualities which are at the stage when they do not create the universe i.e., the time after final destruction and before new creation. The matters of universe created from prakriti are utilized by prakriti for those persons who do not follow the spiritual path, to fulfill their desires and as a result such persons always remain indulged in illusion. And for those who select spiritual path, prakriti helps them to realise God.
It tells that whatever is there in the universe, the same is eternal and everlasting and that which is not in the universe that does not ever exist.
This shastra also tells about the existence of Almighty, Omnipresent God, The Creator of universe.
Sankhya shastra tells that soul has to face three types of sorrows i.e., Adhyatmik, adhibhautik and adhidaivik and by following the spiritual path i.e., practice of Ashtang Yoga Philosophy etc., and achieving asceticism soul can attain salvation.
4. PATANJAL YOG DARSHAN – In this shastra , Patanjali Rishi preaches about Ashtang Yoga education and tells to attain salvation by following it. He tells soul, faces the result of his deeds but Almighty God is ever away from klesh, deeds and to face the result of deeds etc.
5. MIMANSA SHASTRA – Writer is Gemini Rishi.
This shastra preaches about Dharma. Knowledge of dharma cannot be achieved without knowing four Vedas because the dharma is established by God only and not by man. That is why, the fact of dharma is told by Vedas being the only self-proof. The main subject, matter of this shastra is four Vedas. It tells-
(a) Path of achieving knowledge.
(c) The decision on duties and its failure of non-performance.
(d) It also promotes performance of deeds selflessly and to have realization of God.
6. VEDANTA SHASTRA – Writer is Vyas muniji.
Vedanta shastra tells about:-
(i) God (ii) Souls (iii) Prakriti.
It tells that said three eternal matters are distinctly separate from each other. So, the shastra condemns the present Vedanta that soul is itself Almighty God.